I can’t remember previously seeing a malware delivery campaign using a malformed, malicious RTF file like this one. It definitely is using one of the multiple Equation Editor exploits.There is some dispute on VirusTotal whether it is CVE-2017-11882 or CVE-2018-0802 or even whether it is a new exploit. It definitely involved embedded OLE objects being extracted and dropped from the RTF file. The RTF header / Control word is somewhat different to usual and starts with \rtfSP\ whereas we normally see \rtf\ ,\rtf0\ or \rtf1\ in the majority of malicious RTF files. I am not exactly sure what \rtfSP\ means but some information says it means space which makes all formatting commands to be ignored by Microsoft Word or whichever other Rich Text reading program you use, which is why this appears as a totally blank document, although multiple styles and fonts are being shown in the code.
The email pretends to be a notification of a Swift Banking transfer from an Italian Bank Unicredit SPA. There is supposed to be some sort of image in the email from google user content, but that is missing. It looks like these criminal bad actors are trying to use a proxy on google to get & display an image from a webmail service that needs a login to get to it. I am assuming that the cpanel account belonging to https://sets-sa.com has been compromised and the criminals have access to the webmail.
https://ci4.googleusercontent.com/proxy/KWrAqANqAl52vc0yGKvClo6p72aextcs9Q64kCcCv1y6XB3OaxqBBriQsmRe5qRAdJWb169QL8eYE3vkhPnGsZ7RARnBJW65x05LhRc-EElGZsefnx8KOL_ne__mYtvVMPRwynC_t62bBFZyInLNWY1VZfkIfzv-9VwEZFeCjXiVwya2iSlLfC0SGlcdDguXY8stU7ha0ZpKUMcRYeKcnJ9NqvtZrgDurr8k8qyV71_DLHz2exePnQCBKVDVi2FyetkTJvODGq_LKhwJIBMX=s0-d-e1-ft#https://sets-sa.com:2096/cpsess0859804964/3rdparty/roundcube/?_task=mail&_action=get&_mbox=INBOX.Trash&_uid=123&_token=5WCWqUYDn26306x26CI40IOPJmLQcP1R&_part=1.2&_embed=1&_mimeclass=image” width=”226″ align=”bottom” height=”95
Remember many email clients, especially on a mobile phone or tablet or using many webmail services, only show the Name in the From: and not the bit in <domain.com >. That is why these scams and phishes work so well.
You can now submit suspicious sites, emails and files via our Submissions system
This malware RTF file drops a .exe file A.X ( VirusTotal) As usual with Formbook, there are loads of sites it tries to contact as C2. Those that appeared in Anyrun before the time out are listed in the IOC at the end of this post.
As far as I can tell nether email@example.com or UniCredit Bank have been hacked or had their email or other servers compromised. They are not sending the emails to you. They are just innocent victims in exactly the same way as every recipient of these emails.
The email looks like:
From: UniCredit Bank S.p.A <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Wed 16/01/2019 03:35
Subject: Payment Swift Copy Notification From UniCredit Bank S.p.A
TRANSMISSION: MT103 Single Customer Credit Transfer Copy.
Attach below is the final payment as instructed by your customer to forward a copy to you. For further information check with the swift copy attached below.
Head of Group Swift Relations
UniCredit Bank S.p.A
Piazza Gae Aulenti 3 – Tower A
Tolfree +39 01 736 7363
Phone +39 02 882 6216
Fax +39 02 884 6215
The Information contained and transmitted by this E-MAIL is proprietary to UniCredit Bank S.p.A and/or its Customer and is intended for use only by the individual or entity to which it is addressed, and may contain information that is privileged, confidential or exempt from a disclosure under applicable law.
If this is a forwarded message, the content of this E-MAIL may not have been sent with the authority of the Bank. UniCredit Bank S.p.A shall not be liable for any mails sent without due authorisation or through unauthorised access.
|188.8.131.52||192-3-13-211-host.colocrossing.com||Clarence||New York||US||AS36352 ColoCrossing|
Received: from [184.108.40.206] (port=63678 helo=pricolcargo.com) by my mail server with esmtp (Exim 4.91) (envelope-from <email@example.com>) id 1gjbyn-00045I-5w for firstname.lastname@example.org; Wed, 16 Jan 2019 03:35:08 +0000 From: "UniCredit Bank S.p.A" <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Payment Swift Copy Notification From UniCredit Bank S.p.A Date: 15 Jan 2019 19:34:51 -0800 Message-ID: <20190115193451.199F46144E43CBD7@pricolcargo.com> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0012_7E9B4946.67391E93"
All the alleged senders, companies, names of employees, phone numbers, amounts, reference numbers etc. mentioned in the emails are all innocent and are just picked at random. Some of these companies will exist and some won’t. Don’t try to respond by phone or email, all you will do is end up with an innocent person or company who have had their details spoofed and picked at random from a long list that the bad guys have previously found . The bad guys choose companies, Government departments and other organisations with subjects that are designed to entice you or alarm you into blindly opening the attachment or clicking the link in the email to see what is happening.
This email attachment contains what appears to be a genuine word doc or Excel XLS spreadsheet with either a macro script or an embedded OLE object that when run will infect you.
Modern versions of Microsoft office, that is Office 2010, 2013, 2016 and Office 365 should be automatically set to higher security to protect you.
By default protected view is enabled and macros are disabled, UNLESS you or your company have enabled them. If protected view mode is turned off and macros are enabled then opening this malicious word document will infect you, and simply previewing it in windows explorer or your email client might well be enough to infect you. Definitely DO NOT follow the advice they give to enable macros or enable editing to see the content.
Most of these malicious word documents either appear to be totally blank or look something like these images when opened in protected view mode, which should be the default in Office 2010, 2013, 2016 and 365. Some versions pretend to have a digital RSA key and say you need to enable editing and Macros to see the content. Do NOT enable Macros or editing under any circumstances.
Please read our How to protect yourselves page for simple, sensible advice on how to avoid being infected by this sort of socially engineered malware. Also please read our post about word macro malware and how to avoid being infected by them
Be very careful with email attachments. All of these emails use Social engineering tricks to persuade you to open the attachments that come with the email. It might be a simple message saying “look at this picture of me I took last night” that appears to come from a friend. It might be a scare ware message that will make you open the attachment to see what you are accused of doing. Frequently it is more targeted at somebody ( small companies etc.) who regularly receive PDF attachments or Word .doc attachments or any other common file that you use every day, for example an invoice addressed to email@example.com.
The basic rule is NEVER open any attachment to an email, unless you are expecting it. Now that is very easy to say but quite hard to put into practice, because we all get emails with files attached to them. Our friends and family love to send us pictures of them doing silly things, or even cute pictures of the children or pets. Many of us routinely get Word, Excel or PowerPoint attachments in the course of work or from companies that we already have a relationship with.
Never just blindly click on the file in your email program. Always save the file to your downloads folder, so you can check it first. A lot of malicious files that are attached to emails will have a faked extension. That is the 3 letters at the end of the file name. Unfortunately windows by default hides the file extensions so you need to Set your folder options to “show known file types. Then when you unzip the zip file that is supposed to contain the pictures of “Sally’s dog catching a ball”, an invoice or receipt from some company for a product or service or receive a Word doc or Excel file report that work has supposedly sent you to finish working on at the weekend, you can easily see if it is a picture or document & not a malicious program. If you see JS or .EXE or .COM or .PIF or .SCR or .HTA .vbs, .wsf , .jse .jar at the end of the file name DO NOT click on it or try to open it, it will infect you.
With these malformed infected word, excel and other office documents that normally contain a vba macro virus, the vital thing is do not open any office document direct from your email client or the web. Always save the document to a safe location on your computer, normally your downloads folder or your documents folder and scan it with your antivirus. Many Antiviruses do not natively detect vba macro-viruses in real time protection and you need to enable document or office protection in the settings. Do not rely on your Anti-Virus to immediately detect the malware or malicious content. DO NOT enable editing mode or enable macros
All modern versions of word and other office programs, that is 2010, 2013, 2016 and 365, should open all Microsoft office documents that is word docs, excel files and PowerPoint etc that are downloaded from the web or received in an email automatically in “protected view” that stops any embedded malware or macros from being displayed and running. Make sure protected view is set in all office programs to protect you and your company from these sorts of attacks and do not over ride it to edit the document until you are 100% sure that it is a safe document. If the protected mode bar appears when opening the document DO NOT enable editing mode or enable macros the document will look blank or have a warning message, but will be safe.
Be aware that there are a lot of dodgy word docs spreading that WILL infect you with no action from you if you are still using an out dated or vulnerable version of word. This is a good reason to update your office programs to a recent version and stop using office 2003 and 2007. Many of us have continued to use older versions of word and other office programs, because they are convenient, have the functions and settings we are used to and have never seen a need to update to the latest super-duper version. The risks in using older version are now seriously starting to outweigh the convenience, benefits and cost of keeping an old version going.
I strongly urge you to update your office software to the latest version and stop putting yourself at risk, using old out of date software.